History of Halloween

History of Halloween

Halloween is a holiday celebrated on the night of October 31.  The word Halloween is a shortening of All Hallows Evening also known as Hallowe’en or All Hallows’ Eve.

Traditional activities include trick-or-treating, bonfires, costume parties, visiting “haunted houses” and carving jack-o-lanterns. Irish and Scottish immigrants carried versions of the tradition to North America in the nineteenth century. Other western countries embraced the holiday in the late twentieth century including Ireland, the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico and the United Kingdom as well as of Australia and New Zealand.
 

Halloween has its origins in the ancient Celtic festival known as Samhain (pronounced “sah-win”).
The festival of Samhain is a celebration of the end of the harvest season in Gaelic culture. Samhain was a time used by the ancient pagans to take stock of supplies and prepare for winter. The ancient Gaels believed that on October 31, the boundaries between the worlds of the living and the dead overlapped and the deceased would come back to life and cause havoc such as sickness or damaged crops.

The festival would frequently involve bonfires. It is believed that the fires attracted insects to the area which attracted bats to the area. These are additional attributes of the history of Halloween.

Masks and costumes were worn in an attempt to mimic the evil spirits or appease them.

Trick-or-treating, is an activity for children on or around Halloween in which they proceed from house to house in costumes, asking for treats such as confectionery with the question, “Trick or treat?” The “trick” part of “trick or treat” is a threat to play a trick on the homeowner or his property if no treat is given. Trick-or-treating is one of the main traditions of Halloween. It has become socially expected that if one lives in a neighborhood with children one should purchase treats in preparation for trick-or-treaters.

The history of Halloween has evolved.  The activity is popular in the United States, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada, and due to increased American cultural influence in recent years, imported through exposure to US television and other media, trick-or-treating has started to occur among children in many parts of Europe, and in the Saudi Aramco camps of Dhahran, Akaria compounds and Ras Tanura in Saudi Arabia. The most significant growth and resistance is in the United Kingdom, where the police have threatened to prosecute parents who allow their children to carry out the “trick” element. In continental Europe, where the commerce-driven importation of Halloween is seen with more skepticism, numerous destructive or illegal “tricks” and police warnings have further raised suspicion about this game and Halloween in general.

In Ohio, Iowa, and Massachusetts, the night designated for Trick-or-treating is often referred to as Beggars Night.

Part of the history of Halloween  is Halloween costumes. The practice of dressing up in costumes and begging door to door for treats on holidays goes back to the Middle Ages, and includes Christmas wassailing. Trick-or-treating resembles the late medieval practice of “souling,” when poor folk would go door to door on Hallowmas (November 1), receiving food in return for prayers for the dead on All Souls Day (November 2). It originated in Ireland and Britain, although similar practices for the souls of the dead were found as far south as Italy. Shakespeare mentions the practice in his comedy The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1593), when Speed accuses his master of “puling [whimpering, whining], like a beggar at Hallowmas.”

Yet there is no evidence that souling was ever practiced in America, and trick-or-treating may have developed in America independent of any Irish or British antecedent. There is little primary Halloween history documentation of masking or costuming on Halloween in Ireland, the UK, or America  before 1900. The earliest known reference to ritual begging on Halloween in English speaking North America occurs in 1911, when a newspaper in Kingston, Ontario, near the border of upstate New York, reported that it was normal for the smaller children to go street guising (see below) on Halloween between 6 and 7 p.m., visiting shops and neighbors to be rewarded with nuts and candies for their rhymes and songs. Another isolated reference appears, place unknown, in 1915, with a third reference in Chicago in 1920. The thousands of Halloween postcards produced between the turn of the 20th century and the 1920s commonly show children but do not depict trick-or-treating. Ruth Edna Kelley, in her 1919 history of the holiday, The Book of Hallowe’en, makes no mention of such a custom in the chapter “Hallowe’en in America.” It does not seem to have become a widespread practice until the 1930s, with the earliest known uses in print of the term “trick or treat” appearing in 1934, and the first use in a national publication occurring in 1939. Thus, although a quarter million Scots-Irish immigrated to America between 1717 and 1770, the Irish Potato Famine brought almost a million immigrants in 1845,1849, and British and Irish immigration to America peaked in the 1880s, ritualized begging on Halloween was virtually unknown in America until generations later.

Trick-or-treating spread from the western United States eastward, stalled by sugar rationing that began in April 1942 during World War II and did not end until June 1947.

Early national attention to trick-or-treating was given in October 1947 issues of the children’s magazines Jack and Jill and Children’s Activities, and by Halloween episodes of the network radio programs The Baby Snooks Show in 1946 and The Jack Benny Show and The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet in 1948. The custom had become firmly established in popular culture by 1952, when Walt Disney portrayed it in the cartoon Trick or Treat, Ozzie and Harriet were besieged by trick-or-treaters on an episode of their television show, and UNICEF first conducted a national campaign for children to raise funds for the charity while trick-or-treating.

 

Trick-or-treating on the prairie. Although some popular histories of Halloween have characterized trick-or-treating as an adult invention to re-channel Halloween activities away from vandalism, nothing in the historical record supports this theory. To the contrary, adults, as reported in newspapers from the mid-1930s to the mid-1950s, typically saw it as a form of extortion, with reactions ranging from bemused indulgence to anger. Likewise, as portrayed on radio shows, children would have to explain what trick-or-treating was to puzzled adults, and not the other way around. Sometimes even the children protested: for Halloween 1948, members of the Madison Square Boys Club in New York City carried a parade banner that read “American Boys Don’t Beg.”

Sunshine Nonwoven Company Congratulate On The Landon Olympics Games was concluded satisfactorily

Sunshine Nonwoven Company Congratulate The Landon Olympics Games was concluded satisfactorily

Overall Medal Count

 

 
TOTAL
1
US 46 29 29 104
2
China 38 27 22 87
3
Britain 29 17 19 65
4
Russia 24 25 33 82
5
Republic of Korea 13 8 7 28
6
Germany 11 19 14 44
7
France 11 11 12 34
8
Italy 8 9 11 28
9
Hungary 8 4 5 17
10
Australia 7 16 12 35
11
Japan 7 14 17 38
12
Kazakhstan 7 1 5 13
13
Netherlands 6 6 8 20
14
Ukraine 6 5 9 20
15
Cuba 5 3 6 14
16
New Zealand 5 3 5 13
17
Iran 4 5 3 12
18
Jamaica 4 4 4 12
19
Czech Republic 4 3 3 10
20
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea 4 0 2 6
21
Spain 3 10 4 17
22
Brazil 3 5 9 17
23
Belarus 3 5 5 13
24
South Africa 3 2 1 6
25
Ethiopia 3 1 3 7
26
Croatia 3 1 2 6
27
Romania 2 5 2 9
28
Kenya 2 4 5 11
29
Denmark 2 4 3 9
30
Poland 2 2 6 10

 

LONDON – For the tens of thousands of athletes, who had shed tears and sweat to get to London, the Olympic Games are over and now it’s time to party.

International Olympic Committee President Jacques Rogge closed the London Olympics over with praise for the athletes.

“Through your commitment to fair play, your respect for opponents, and your grace in defeat as well as in victory, you have earned the right to be called Olympians,” he said, adding: “These were happy and glorious Games.”

Fireworks explode over the Olympic Stadium during the closing ceremony of the London 2012 Olympic Games, Aug 12, 2012. [Photo/Agencies]

 

From Ray Davies, George Michael to the Spice Girls, London has called on Britain’s most successful musicians to the weekend party to celebrate the end of 16 days of competition and exuberance.

The show, “A Symphony of British Music”, included performances of 30 British hit singles from the past five decades – whittled by artistic director Kim Gavin from a pool of 1,000 songs.

The London 2012, described by the organizer as “an athletes’ Games”, attracted 10,490 athletes from 204 countries and regions. A total of 44 world records and 117 Olympic records have been set at the games.

The host nation won a record 29 gold medals – Britain’s best performance in more than a century – finishing third in golds. The United States beat China in both the number of gold medals and total medals, recapturing the top position it lost four years ago.

The Games witnessed the sensational moment when Jamaica’s sprinter Usian Bolt smashed the world record, becoming the first athlete to win both the 100m and 200m in consecutive Games.

It also witnessed the tears when American swimmer Michael Phelps announced his retirement after becoming the most decorated Olympian with a total of 22 Olympic medals, out of which four gold medals and two silvers were won in London.

Britain’s Chris Hoy, competing in his fourth Games, grabbed two golds of the cycling track race in London. Hoy’s tears as he received his sixth gold medal were described by Rogge as a “defining image” of the Games.

For millions of Chinese, London also saw the heartbreaking moment as China’s hurdler Liu Xiang limped down the track toward the finish line.

Four years ago after an Achilles injury denied Liu the chance of defending his Olympic 110m hurdles title in Beijing, tragedy struck again in London as the 2004 champion crashed into the first obstacle and fell to the track in his opening heat.

A new generation of heroes also step into the spotlight in London.

Chinese swimmer Sun Yang broke his own world record to make it a golden double at the London Olympics. British distance runner Mo Farah became a national treasure by sweeping the 5,000-meter and 10,000-meter races.

And then there was Oscar Pistorious, the double-amputee from South Africa running on carbon-fiber blades. And sprinter Manteo Mitchell, who completed his leg of the 4×400 relay semifinal on a broken leg, allowing his team to qualify and win silver.

The Games were prepared during difficult economic times. While trying to control the spending, the organizers had hoped the Games could create opportunities for the young and help boost the country’s economy.

Boris Johnson, Mayor of London, said the legacy of the Games for London goes way beyond sport.

“Olympic investment has kickstarted the transformational renaissance in east London, bringing new jobs and new homes to the communities where they are most needed,” Johnson said.

As the celebration came to an end, Johnson handed over the Olympic flag to Mayor of Rio de Janeiro, Eduardo Paes. The handover marks the first time a South American country will host the Olympic Games.

As the Brazilian anthem was played and the Brazilian flag was raised, the search for Rio 2016′s heroes began.

A flaming phoenix flies above the Olympic flame during the closing ceremony of the London 2012 Olympic Games at the Olympic Stadium, Aug 12, 2012. [Photo/Agencies]

Eid-Ul-Fitr History

Eid-Ul-Fitr History

Ramadan, the month of fasting for Muslims last for 29 to 30 days. The end of the Ramadan marks the beginning of the Eid-Ul-Fitr. Eid occurs on the first day of the Shawwal, the tenth month of Islamic calendar. According to the history of Islam and traditions
on the last day of Ramadan after sunset, people start sighting the crescent moon. As soon as the moon (hilal) is spotted the celebrations for the Eid-ul-fitr begins for all the Muslims.
 
Importance Of Eid-ul-Fitr
Ramadan is said to be the holy month of Muslims, it is believed that holy book Quran was revealed to prophet Muhammad during this month. It is believed that during this month the gates of hell are closed and the gates of heaven are open.
It is also believed that Ramadan is Allah own month. Another event which took place during the month of Ramadan was the battle of Badr, the battle between the inhabitants of Mecca and Medina. It the month to thank Allah for that he has given to human being. So thereby saying no to food, drink, smoking and sexual activities during daylight all the Muslims devote themselves to pray to Allah. Once the crescent moon is sighted it the time to break the fast and get over with the Ramadan month and celebrate Eid-Ul-Fitr.
 
Eid-Ul-Fitr
Once the crescent moon is sighted, the Ramadan month comes to an end and its now the time for celebrations for the Muslims. Eid-Ul-Fitr means to break the fast. Eid is the time to spread happiness, love, and triumph thereby creating enthusiasm among all the family members. On the Eid day all the Muslims wear new clothes and go for special Eid Prayer ceremonies in their near by mosque to thank Allah by reciting various prayers and Eid-Ul-Fitr Dua. After the prayers there is a get together at Muslims house for an Eid meal and to celebrate the occasion together. Muslim children have a joyful Eid Celebration as they get clothes, gifts, perks, and sweets from all their relatives. Children also make special Eid greetings for their Friends and decorate their houses in their special ways to enhance the beauty of the Eid Festival. Muslims greet each other by wishing Eid Mubarak to each other, which means Happy Eid!!

Ramadan Schedule 2012

Ramadan, one of the holiest celebrations of the Islamic community is observed throughout the 9th month of the Islamic calendar. Ramadan in 2012 will be celebrated throughout the world from August 1 to August 30. 

 The timetable for Ramadan usually varies from one country to another. Also, the Ramadan schedule in one state or city will be different from that of another in a certain country. The Islamic calendar being lunar, the months migrate throughout the seasons and shift backward around 2 weeks every year. So, in your lifetime, you may celebrate Ramadan sometimes in mid-summer and sometimes in winter. The fact is that the date of Ramadan shifts based on when people on earth can view the new moon.

About Eid Festival

About Eid

Coming with the new moon, the festival marks the end of ‘Ramadan’ – a month when Muslims fast throughout the day and eat only at night Prayers, feasts and family get- together are the major highlights of the eid ul fitr celebrations. It was during this month that the holy Koran was revealed. Eid means recurring happiness or festivity. Eid is celebrated in India with much enthusiasm and fervor and Muslims from all strata of life can be seen adorned in beautiful new clothes, visiting the mosques to attend Salatul Eid (Eid prayers). Greetings of “Eid-Mubarak” or “a blessed Eid” are exchanged.

A very important aspect of eid is the charity, which all the Muslims are expected to extend to the needy. Earlier, this was in the form of gifts in kind but now cash is given to the needy. The first Eid of the year is known as “Eid Ul Fitr”. Ul Fitr literally means breaking of fast. Thus Eid Ul Fitr is celebrated on the first day of Shawaal, the tenth month in the Muslim calendar, to mark the end of a month long fast during the month of Ramadan.

 As the third “pillar” or religious obligation of Islam, fasting has many special benefits. Among these, the most important is that it is a means of learning self-control. Due to the lack of preoccupation with the satisfaction of bodily appetites during the daylight hours of fasting, a measure of ascendancy is given to one’s spiritual nature, which becomes a means of coming closer to Allah. Ramadan is also a time of concentrated worship, reading of the Quran, purifying one’s behavior, giving charity and doing virtuous deeds.

The secondary objective of fasting is a way of experiencing hunger and developing compassion for the less fortunate, and learn to be thankful and appreciative for all of God’s bounties. Fasting is also advantageous to the health and provides a break in the cycle of rigid habits.

Eid Ul Fitr is a day of joy and thanksgiving. On this day, Muslims show their joy for the health, strength and opportunities of life, which Allah has given them to fulfill their obligations of fasting and other good deeds during the month of Ramadan. It is considered unholy to fast on this day. It is also a day of forgetting old grudges and ill feelings towards other fellow men. The second important Eid celebration is called “Eid Ul-Adha”.

Although only the pilgrims in Makkah can participate in the Hajj fully, all the other Muslims in the world join with them by celebrating Eid Ul-Adha, or “Celebration of Sacrifice.” On the 10th day of Dhul-Hijjah, the last month of the Islamic calendar, Muslims around the world celebrate this feast of commitment, obedience and self-sacrifice to Allah. They wear their nicest clothing and attend Salatul-Eid (Eid Prayer) in the morning. This is followed by a short sermon, after which everyone socializes. Next, people visit each other’s homes and partake in festive meals with special dishes, beverages, and desserts. Children receive gifts and sweets on this happy occasion. In addition, like the pilgrims in Makkah, the Muslims, who can afford to do so, offer domestic animals, usually sheep, as a symbol of Ibrahim’s (PBUH) sacrifice.

The meat is distributed for consumption to family, friends, and to the poor and needy. Prayers are offered in mosques and Idgahs and elaborate festivities are held.

Eid e milad is also popularly known as Mawlid, the birth of the Prophet.� It is derived from the Arabic word, meaning to give birth, or descendant. It is the third biggest of all other Eids. The day is celebrated by the Muslim families across the world to observe the birthday of the beloved Islamic prophet Muhammad. On this sacrosanct day Almighty Allah sent his most praised Holy Prophet in this world to be the source of help and happiness and guide the humanity towards the path of light and follow ultimate truth. Sunnis observe the day on the 12th of the month and Shias on the 17th of the month, which coincides with the birth date of their sixth Imam, Ja’far al-Sadiq. Prophet Muhammad was born in the city of Mecca on the 12th day of Rabi-ul-Awwal, which falls on the third month in the Islamic calendar. Its date varies as the Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar.

Celebrating World Environment Day

In recent we have seen a sudden increase in the number of earthquakes, floods, tornados, rise in temperatures, less than normal rains, and volcanic eruptions, this is all because we are playing with rules of nature. World Environment Day (WED) provided us the platform to think and take action in direction to make our planet better to live.

World Environment Day is celebrated every year on 5th June to raise global awareness of the need to take positive environmental action. It is run by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). It was the day that United Nations Conference on the Human Environment began. The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment was from 5–16 June 1972. It was established by the United Nations General Assembly in 1972.The first World Environment Day was celebrated in 1973. World Environment Day is hosted every year by a different city with a different theme and is commemorated with an international exposition in the week of 5 June.

Theme for World Environment Day 2012:

The theme for World Environment Day 2012 is Green Economy: Does it include you? The UN Environment Program, a green economy can be thought of as one which is low carbon, resource efficient and socially inclusive. The green economy will improve human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities .

The second part of the theme suggests that if the Green Economy is about social equity and inclusiveness then technically it is all about you! The question therefore asks you to find out more about the Green Economy and assess whether, in your country, you are being included in it.

Small steps to save our Environment:

We all are aware of what to do to save the environment but somehow we do not follow these rules. Let’s take small steps to save our earth:

1) We can keep the windows open during the day to let in natural light and fresh air.

2) Harvesting rain water can increase the earth water level and its very important for the fast growing cities like Delhi, Mumbai Bangalore and more. Take homes only from water harvesting compliance builders.

3) Say no to plastic and take Jute and cotton bags for purchasing fruits and vegetables.

4) Plant more trees where ever you can. Take part in government initiatives. Make you surrounding green by planting treas. Residential welfare association can play a major role in planting treas.

5) If you want to go for market nearby go by walk. Do not use bike or car for travelling small distances which you can walk in few minutes. This will save you fuel and nature too.

 6) Do not waste paper in un necessary printing. Print both the sides of paper and think twice do you really need print for that particular document.

7) Use car pooling to save money and fuel both.

8) Try to travel maximum by road or rail instead of flight.

9) Spread the awareness for saving our environment and follow it yourself

Our Sunshine Nonwoven Company always keep the world going green. We supply shopping bag nonwoven fabric to less the white pollution; We supply agriculture non woven fabric to protect the plants glowing well. Above all, our pp spunbond nonwoven fabric is it eco-friendly, biodegradable, Non-toxic, non-irritating: made of materials which catch up FDA standard, without other chemical composition, stable, non-toxic, no smell, safe for sensitive skin.

International Labor Day 2012

International Labor Day 2012

What is International Labor Day?

International Labor Day is a day observed all over the world on May 1 to celebrate the social and economic achievements of workers.

International Labor Day in Different Country

In India and other countries like England, the day also has the significance as the spring fertility festival, so people celebrate it to honor goddess of spring. International Labor Day is celebrated with lots of joy and fervor in towns and villages. They celebrate fertility in the month of, May (spring) with village fetes and community gatherings. The most significant of the traditions is the traditional dances by men and women. Towns and villages in England plan huge celebration on the day.

How is International Labor Day Celebrated?

In most of the countries like US and UK, it is a national holiday. In India, May 1, has also been declared a public holiday.

Historical Significance of International Labor Day

The day has a historic significance which dates back to May 1 1886. On this International Labor Day several Labor unions all over the US decided to go on strike. They demanded a workday of eight hours to be accepted as a standard all over the US. In Chicago a bomb explosion planned by revolutionist led to the deaths and injury of over 100 people. Ultimately the protests proved fruitful and effective thus standardizing eight-hour work days as the new norm in many countries across the globe.

Different arrangements on International Labor Day

International Labor Day is celebrated as a day for demonstrations, parades, and speeches. The International Labor Day is still often chosen as a day for protests and rallies. While the rallies are tried to be peaceful with all kinds of security arrangements, sometimes violence is erupted due to clash between militant groups and riot police. Sometimes there are marches for rights of thousands of workers on to the streets to mark May Day with demands for better Labor conditions.

Many Labor organizations across the country carry out processions and speeches are organized by various political parties. International Labor Day is one of the major holidays in US. The International Labor Day is also very significant in Russia and other communist countries. Now a day the celebration of this day is sometimes marked by the demand of economic and social reforms by the workers and trade unions to preserve their interests.

Difference in celebration across the World

But there is some difference in the celebration dates of the International Labor Day in different countries. In Germany, International Labor Day is celebrated on May 2. Violence has become a game of International Labor Day celebrations in Germany since the late 1980s.There is always brawl between far-Left youths and authorities.

In India, International Labor Day is observed as a national holiday. InMaharashtra, Labor Day is known as Maharashtra Diwas. In Poland, International Labor Day is celebrated on May 1 and termed as State Holiday. International Labor Day is observed on the first Monday in October in the New South Wales and South Australia. It is a public holiday on this day in Australia. International Labor Day is observed on the first Monday of the month, September in Canada.

The International Labor Day history in Canada can be dated back to a revolt in 1872 in Toronto. Since that day International Labor Day parades, picnics, fireworks displays, water activities, and public art events and picnics are organized by many unions in Canada. International Labor Day is a public holiday observed on the fourth Monday of October, in New Zealand. Its origin dates back to the movement that was started in Wellington colony in 1840. The demand was the eight hour working day.

The International Labor Day is also known as Eight-Hour Demonstration Day in New Zealand. International Labor Day is observed on the first Monday of September. It is a federal holiday in United States. International Labor Day is celebrated on May 1, in China, and is a public holiday. Previously, there used to be a full week holiday on account of International Labor Day. They use to combine weekends with three day holiday of International Labor Day. This week long holiday was marked by the striking consumption of shopping extravaganza. But now there is a single holiday observed International Labor Day.

More Information About Labor Day